Anemia is a common comorbidity in patients with HF and HFrEF and is associated with lower quality of life and worse outcomes, including increased risk of fatal events.
Patients in the study were enrolled in the Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and a Reduced Ejection Fraction (EMPEROR-Reduced) if they had chronic HF with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%. Study participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 10 mg daily of empagliflozin in addition to their daily medications.
The primary endpoint of the study was the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for HF and was analyzed as the time to first event. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were measured at baseline as well as during follow-up visits and anemia was defined by hematocrit levels <39% in men or <36% in women.
Results and Conclusions
The presence of anemia was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as total HF hospitalizations and worse kidney outcomes.
In comparison to the placebo group, empagliflozin led to a rapid increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels and reduced the percentage of patients with anemia, with a difference of 8.5% at week 52.
Similarly, empagliflozin led to a reduction in the number of patients with new-onset anemia, with 22.6% of participants in the placebo group developing anemia during follow-up compared to 12.3% in the empagliflozin group. Regardless of anemia status at baseline, empagliflozin improved HF and kidney outcomes.
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