Researchers determined the links between chronic inflammatory lung disease and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). They also investigated the impact of sex and race on such associations. An analysis of 1,660 lung cancer cases and 1,959 population controls was carried out using logistic regression and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. After adjustment for relevant covariates, chronic lung disease was found to be notably related to higher odds of having NSCLC in never, former, and current smokers. An increase in the risk of lung cancer was noted only among females for each 5-year increment in chronic lung disease duration. Overall, chronic lung inflammation was shown to be a potential contributing factor to lung cancer risk. Possible sex difference in the inflammatory events underlying disease mechanisms was also supported.