This study was carried out to assess if nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC)-induced HBsAg seroclearance, compared with spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance, differs in its association with favorable long-term clinical outcomes. Researchers retrospectively examined a total of 1,972 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with confirmed HBsAg seroclearance at least two consecutive times, 6 months apart (mean patient age was 53.7 years, and 64.4% were men). They compared risks of HCC development and composite clinical events, including HCC, liver-related death, and liver transplantation, between spontaneous and NUC-induced HBsAg seroclearance. It was shown that the risks of HCC and clinical events were not significantly different between spontaneous and NUC-induced HBsAg seroclearance. The results demonstrate that annual risk of HCC exceeds the recommended cutoff for HCC surveillance even after HBsAg seroclearance, implying that continued HCC surveillance is needed.
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